Scientific Facts
Content Sources

Facts about Obesity

1. Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Based on data from NHS II (1963-1965) and NHS III (1966-1970) and NHANES I (1971-1974) and NHANES II (1976-1980).

2. American Obesity Association; Obesity in Minority population; Available at
http://www.obesity.org/subs/fastfacts/Obesity_Minority_Pop.shtml ; Last updated October 26, 2004.


Obesity - Weight loss mechanism

1. Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH Clinical Centre, National Institutes of Health. http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/calcium.asp .

2. Regulation of Adiposity and Obesity Risk by Dietary Calcium: Mechanism and Implications, by Michael B. Zemel, Ph.D., the University of Tennessee , Knoxville , Tennessee.

3. Effect of short term high calcium intake on 24 h energy expenditure, fat oxidation and fecal fat excretion, International Journal of Obesity (2005)29, 292 301.

Osteoporosis - Healing Process

1. Calcium Absorption: A Critical process in Maintaining Healthy Bones by September Nelson, University of Oregon; International Institute for Sport and Human Performance, National Institutes of Health (NIH).

2. Elders, P.J., Lips, P., Netelenvos, J.C., Van Ginkel, F.C., Khoe, E., Van Der VIjgh, W.J., and Van der Stelt, P.F. (1994). Long-term effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in per menopausal women; Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 9 (7), 963-970.

3. Ulrich, C.M., Georgiou, C.C., Snow Harter, C.M., and Gillis, D.E. (1996). Bone mineral density in mother-daughter pairs: Relations to lifetime exercise, lifetime milk consumption, and calcium supplements. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63, 72-79.

Osteoporosis - Facts

1.University of Maryland Medical Center
http://www.umm.edu/altmed/Conssupplements/Calciumcs.html

2. National Institute of Health (NIH)

Colorectal Cancer - Colorectal Cancer and Calcium

1. Baron J.A., Beach M., Mandel J.S., et al. Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas.
N Eng J Med. 1999 Jan 14:340(2):101-7

2. Medicare - http://www.medicare.gov/health/awareness.asp

3. U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2002. Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report Version. Atlanta (GA): Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Cancer Institute. ( cdcinfo@cdc.gov ).

4. Anderson W.F., Guyton K.Z., Hiatt R.A. et al. Colorectal cancer screening for persons at average risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2002; 94 (15): 1126-1133.

5. Roche http://www.roche.com/home/diseases/dis_can_/dis_can_col.htm

6. National Cancer Institute
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/colon-and-rectum/page3

7. Colon Polyps and Colon Cancer by Donald E. Mansell
http://personalweb.sunset.net/~mansell/polyp.htm

8. Winawer S.J., Zauber A.G., Gerdes H, et al. Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the families of patients with adenomatous polyps. NEJ Med 1996; 334: 82-87.

9. Kirsner, J.B., et al. Polyps of the colon and rectum: Statistical analysis of a long term follow-up study. Gastroenterology 39: 178, 1960.

10. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colon_cancer )

11. Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Date last reviewed - 11 / 14 / 2005. ( cdcinfo@cdc.gov ).

12. American Cancer Society. Common Questions about Diet and Cancer. Available at www.cancer.org . Accessed 12 / 1 / 2005.

13. Lipkin M, Newmark H. Calcium and Prevention of Colon Cancer. J Cell Biochem Suppl 1995; 22: 65-73 (review).

14. Mothernature.com

Colorectal Cancer - Healing Mechanism

1. Queensland Cancer Fund ( qldcf@qldcancer.com.au )

2. Calcium May Help Prevent Colon Polyps. Environmental Nutrition 22 no. 2 (February 1999): 1.

3. Dairy foods, calcium and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies, J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Jul 7; 96 (13): 1015 - 22.

Hypertension and Heart Disorder - Facts

1. Review: Alberto Zanchetti et al. Hypertension and the Heart. New York : Plenum Press, c1997.

Journal article: Mulrow, CD; et al. Hypertension in the elderly. Implications and generalizability of randomized trials, JAMA, 1994 Dec 28, 272 24: 1932-8.

2. Resnick L M 1999, the role of dietary calcium in hypertension. A hierarchal overview. Am J Hypertens 12: 99-112.

3. Resnick L M, Laragh J H, and Sealey J E, and Alderman M H 1983, divalent cation in essential hypertension. Relations between serums ionized calcium, magnesium and plasma rennin activity.
N Eng J Med. 1983 oct 13;309(15):888-91

4. Zemel M B 2001, Calcium modulation of hypertension and obesity: Mechanism and implications. J Am Coll Nutr 20: S428-S435.

Kidney Stones - Kidney Stone and Calcium (Mechanism)

1.Liebman, Michael, and Weiwen Chai. Effect of dietary calcium on urinary oxalate excretion after oxalate loads. Amer J Clin Nutr. 65: 1453-9.

2. Robertson WG, Peacock M, Heyburn PJ, Hanes FA. Epidemiological risk factors in calcium stone disease, Scand J Urol Nephrol Supplement 1980; 53: 15-30.

3. Massey LK, Roman-Smith H, Sutton RAL. Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and the risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones. J Am Diet Assoc 1993, 93: 901-6.

4. Calcium and Kidney Stones, Better Nutrition, August, 2004.

5. A Rocky Road: Treating Kidney Stones by Christine Haran. Published on August 8, 2003.

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